Enhanced Security Systems for Hotels and Resorts: Threat Detection and Avoidance

By Lawrence Adams Principal, ForrestPerkins | July 07, 2019

On Easter Sunday, 2019, two men wearing backpacks walked into the Shangri La Hotel in Colombo, Sri Lanka. After strolling around the lobby, they rode the guest elevator to the second floor and entered the Table One restaurant. Moments later they detonated suicide bombs killing dozens of guests having breakfast at the luxury hotel. Two other luxury hotels and three churches saw coordinated attacks killing 321 people in one of the deadliest terrorist attacks in recent history.

Just a few months earlier, in January, Islamic extremists attacked the DusitD2 luxury hotel and office complex in Nairobi, Kenya killing 21 people during a 19 hour siege. The attack started when a suicide bomber detonated his suicide vest in the foyer of the hotel and continued as gunmen with AK47s hunted down and killed guests throughout the hotel.

One of the most dramatic hotel attacks, as depicted in the recent movie, Hotel Mumbai, occurred in November of 2008 at the famed Taj Mahal Palace Hotel in Mumbai. The sophisticated and coordinated attack killed 31 people in the Taj Mahal and another 30 people in the Oberoi-Trident Hotel during a four day siege. Two other hotels in Mumbai were attacked during the siege. The attackers had gained access to the blueprints of all four hotels facilitating their deadly planning.

A lone gunman, Stephen Paddock managed to smuggle an arsenal of weapons into the Mandalay Bay Hotel in Las Vegas in the days leading up to the Route 91 Harvest music festival on October 1, 2017. Using bump-stock devices that turn semi-automatic rifles into machine guns, Paddock fired more than a thousand rounds of ammunition into the crowd from his 32nd floor suite, killing 58 festival goers and wounding 422 others. Reportedly Paddock left a Do-Not-Disturb sign on his door for 3 days which, against security protocol, went unreported by the hotel staff. This was the deadliest mass shooting in US history.

In June of 2015 38 people were gunned down on the beach near the five-star Riu Imperial Marhaba Hotel in a Tunisian resort town. In July 2005 a terrorist drove a pickup truck laden with explosives through the glass façade and detonated in the lobby of the Ghazala Beach Hotel in Sharm el-Sheikh resort on the Sanai Peninsula, killing dozens of hotel guests. Similar deadly attacks in recent years have occurred at the Resorts World Hotel and Casino in Manila, a North Caucasus ski resort in Russia and at the Bella Vista Hotel in Hurghada, Egypt.

Hotels and resorts have increasingly become targets of terrorist attacks. Ease of access to facilities that are designed to promote welcoming hospitality to its guests and visitors make securing hotels against attacks a difficult challenge. Terrorist regard hotels and resorts as "target-rich" since guests in luxury lodging are typically affluent and potentially politically influential.

Recent attacks emphatically demonstrate that today's hotel and resort security systems need to focus not only on petty criminals and intruders bent on theft, vandalism, arson or personal assaults, but must employ cutting edge technology in early threat detection of potential terrorist attacks. Politicians, military personnel, celebrities, captains of industry and other potential targets of terrorists are especially vulnerable when away from the protective cover of their dependable home or workplace security networks. Hotels and resorts that cater to this type of clientele must consider going beyond conventional hotel security systems and employ real-time intrusion-detection and threat assessment technology.

Terror attack on Shangri-La Hotel Colombo. Sri Lanka Easter Weekend 2019

Enhanced Security Technology

Traditional hotel security systems have three principal components: video surveillance, alarm systems and locking systems. Video surveillance has typically utilized a closed circuit television (CCTV) system comprised of a number of video cameras strategically located throughout the hotel in stairwells, entrances, elevators and other security sensitive areas, such as safe deposit rooms or cash counting rooms in casino hotels. These cameras are usually monitored in the hotel security office where guards watch a bank of video monitors that record activity in relatively short cycles. While this system relies on the attentiveness of the guards watching the TVs, alarms on certain doors or motion detectors in restricted areas may trigger a video camera and alert a security guard to a potential intrusion or threat.

Electronic card-key systems have replaced mechanical locks and are often connected to computer networks allowing security staff to identify and record the staff member or guest gaining access to a certain space along with time of entry. New advances in guestroom locks allow guest to use their personal credit card or smart phone to enter their room. Retinal scanning and QR (Quick Response) code scanner apps for gaining room access are also on the horizon.

Advancements in video surveillance technology have been rapid and now provide real-time applications to identify, tag, track and address potential terrorist threats. A long-range infrared pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera with video intelligent-convergent technology connected to a data-base that includes facial recognition records of known threats, can potentially detect, track and thwart a threat before it enters the hotel.

Security software technology can now immediately detect weapons, public disturbances and suspicious behaviors. Through artificial intelligence software this type of system analyzes video data, detects anomalous behavior using forensic use-cases, filters data and alerts security officers so they are focused on actual threats and can formulate and deploy appropriate responses. Multi-camera streaming video provides necessary context to achieve accurate predictive modeling and behavioral paradigms. Three-dimensional imaging of the threat environment can help security officers assess a menacing situation and help establish an interactive virtual barrier. These images can then be streamed live to portable devices to support a deployed response.

Ground-based radar and all-weather, day-night laser illuminated thermal PTZ cameras can be utilized on waterfront hotels and resorts to automatically vector-in and track-on-approach unknown targets from up to seven miles out to sea, creating a virtual electronic "bubble" of security. The 2005 American film, Red Eye, has a dramatic sequence where domestic terrorists in a boat off the coast of a high-rise Miami Beach resort hotel, in attempt to assassinate the Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security, fire a FGM-148 Javelin infrared-guided anti-tank missile at his family's suite on the top floor, destroying the suite but narrowly missing the family who, having been alerted to the threat, escaped into a stairwell. Though fictional in this case, an event like this could occur, but could also be prevented using the security technology described above.

Advances in thermographic cameras, utilizing hand held devices, can now provide infrared imaging to detect weapons on a person by detecting temperature contrasts between a weapon and the human body. One company, FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared), is developing apps that can turn a smart phone into a thermographic camera. In the near future a security guard will be able to use their smart phone to detect a concealed weapon on a person of interest.

Detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)

Perhaps the most challenging terrorist threat to detect is one that is arguably the most deadly: concealed explosives. There are a number of effective methods and technical systems for screening for explosives when in close proximity. Trained canines, x-ray devices and trace particle detection systems can detect explosives in packages, luggage, vehicles and persons at close range. However, detecting concealed explosives at a safe standoff distance remains an elusive challenge. While utilizing techniques that detect trace particles or vapors are feasible at close range, at stand-off distances for current technology, the substances become too diluted and undetectable.

One promising development of standoff detection of explosives is the use of a gated UV Raman Spectrometer. Terrorists are often contaminated with trace amounts of the chemicals used to make or handle an IED. Spectrometry can detect microscopic traces of bomb-making material on an individual, package or vehicle leading to further investigation of the threat. UV Standoff Raman Spectrometry experimentation has successfully demonstrated identification of explosive traces at distances of up to 30 meters with a line-of-sight sensor laser source that optically collects and analyzes recorded spectral signatures of all known explosives.

The iconic Taj Mahal Palace was besieged by terrorists in 2008

A new screening technology developed by QinetiQ, a security company utilizing the latest advancements in science and engineering in threat detection, is called SPO-NX. SPO-NX is a stand-off detection system that can scan a crowd and reliably detect suspicious articles such as suicide vest at distances of up to 15 meters. Using passive millimeter wave (PMMW) technology, the system does not provide imaging but can detect an object concealed under clothing by comparing differential in heat transmission between the body and a concealed object. The scanning device can be hand held or mounted to a wall or ceiling. The detected anomaly will trigger a red bar on the sensor and alert the security staff of a potential threat. One can imagine that if this system was in place at the Shangri-La Hotel in Sri Lanka, the terrorist might have been stopped before they got into the elevator to go to the second floor restaurant.

One interesting development in explosive detection technology, bordering on science fiction, is the use of trained honeybees to detect scents associated with explosives. Entomologists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been investigating honeybees' ability to identify the olfactory footprints of deadly explosives. The initiative is called the "Stealthy Insect Sensor Project" where scientists train bees to extend their proboscises-tubular organs in the presence of explosives. In an outdoor environment free-flying bees that detect a scent will slow down and circle the area of the target.

This method is obviously fraught with control complications, not least of which is the short lifespan of a trained bee. But the technology provides impetus to explore applications of the operation of this natural system to other scientific advancements in detection. What if this natural olfactory system could be replicated artificially and installed in a swarm of micro-drones (á la Michael Crichton's Micro) that could be deployed and controlled in a threat-rich environment?

Criminal use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) known as drones are increasingly being recognized as threats where traditional security measures are easily defeated. Small drones can be very difficult to detect and can be used to deliver contraband, capture intelligence and deploy explosives. While use of drones by terrorists in attacking hotels or resorts has not yet been documented, it is easy to see the possibility of such an attack occurring. QinetiQ has developed a system of detecting and tracking unauthorized drones utilizing its Palisade Surveillance Management System using a patented radar system and 3D software to detect, assess and track targets in real-time. In a further advancement of anti-drone intrusion, artificial intelligence driven drones can find and capture other drones.

In many African countries, such as Kenya, vehicles are restricted from entering governmental complexes, luxury hotels and corporate office complexes without first being inspected for weapons or bombs. Unfortunately for many, the inspections are cursory and unsophisticated, utilizing in many cases only a mirror at the end of a pole for inspecting a vehicle's undercarriage.

Four gunmen were able to get past the security checkpoint at the DesitD2 compound and storm in with their weapons blazing. Leidos is an engineering company that produces the VACIS Cargo and Vehicle Inspection Systems. The VACIS IP6500 FullScan Integrated Cargo Inspection System is a drive-through scanning portal that utilizes x-ray imaging and radiation scanning to help security guards intercept weapons, bombs and even nuclear material in containers and vehicles. It can scan vehicles from bumper to bumper, roof to tires and even the vehicle occupants at a rate of 150 vehicles per hour.

There are common sense design solutions that don't necessarily involve hyper-technological applications to insure the safety of hotel guests. During the attack on the Taj Mahal Palace as the terrorists were roaming through the hotel killing everyone they saw, dozens of guests were taken to and barricaded in the safety of the Chambers Club, a private lounge in the hotel that had a hardened shell that the terrorist could not easily penetrate. The club room was in effect a "Safe Room" that afforded most of the guests enough time to escape down a stairway to safety as the terrorists attempted to break down the fortified door.

Consideration should be given, when designing or renovating a luxury hotel, to creating a space that has blast proof walls, windows and doors that provide guests with a safe haven should this type of siege occur. Such a space could be a large meeting room or lounge that has access to food, water and sanitary facilities, but that has a hardened shell and is equipped with provisions for hours and perhaps, as in the case of the Taj siege, days of refuge.

Conclusion

The dilemma for luxury hotels and resorts is how to create a welcoming hospitality atmosphere without making guest feel like they are going through security magnetometers at the airport. On one hand guests are turned off by high security apparatus and so designers of enhanced security systems must endeavor to make them hidden from view. On the other hand, a sense of heightened security is in itself an essential luxury offering, so knowing that your hotel is employing the most sophisticated security systems contributes to the luxury experience.

It must be said that no matter how sophisticated the threat detection technology employed in a hotel or resort, the fundamental problem remains human. A person believing, based on religious, political or other reasoning, that delivering massive death and destruction is their calling will continue to wreak havoc on our society. Altering that kind of mindset continues to be a primary societal challenge for us all for the safety and security of our planet.

Mr. Adams Lawrence Adams, AIA, Principal of Perkins Eastman and its luxury hospitality design affiliate ForrestPerkins, is a global authority on hotel and resort design. Mr. Adams has managed and directed the design of large-scale development projects at major architectural and planning firms for the past 40 years. With a specialty in hotel design, Mr. Adams served as adjunct faculty at New York University for nine years teaching Master's Degree courses on Hotel Design and Development and coauthored two editions of Hotel Design, Planning and Development. His most significant projects include collaborating with I.M. Pei on the New York Four Seasons Hotel, partnering with the Rockwell Group to design the Chambers Hotel, and and The London NYC. Lawrence Adams can be contacted at 214-953-2210 Ext 1115 or ladams@forrestperkins.com Please visit http://www.forrestperkins.com for more information. Extended Biography

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Any and all disputes or controversies of any kind, including but not limited to any performance, duty, obligation or liability arising under or related to this Agreement which are not first resolved informally, shall be determined by binding arbitration in San Francisco, California, in accordance with the rules of the American Arbitration Association. The final award in any such arbitration proceeding shall be subject to entry as a judgment by any court or competent jurisdiction, provided that such judgment does not conflict with the terms and provisions hereof. The jurisdiction of the arbiter (or arbiters) with respect to legal matters shall be limited only by the statutory and common law of the State of California and the United States.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, any and all disputes, which the parties cannot informally resolve, regarding the scope of issues or matter with the jurisdiction of the arbitrator, shall be resolved by a separate dispute resolution process whereby HotelExecutive, in its sole discretion shall elect the dispute to be resolved by either (1) a court of competent jurisdiction in the State of California or (2) a panel of three new arbitrators.

This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of California notwithstanding any conflict of laws provisions. You and HotelExecutive agree that the venue for all legal disputes, controversies, actions of any kind arising under or related to this Agreement shall be San Francisco, California. You and HotelExecutive further agree that in case of any litigation regarding this Agreement, you irrevocably and unconditionally (i) consent to submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts in the County of San Francisco, California for any litigation or dispute arising out of or relating to this Agreement, (ii) agree not to commence any litigation arising out of or relating to this Agreement except in the California Courts, (iii) agree not to plead or claim that such litigation brought therein has been brought in an inconvenient forum, and (iv) agree the California Courts represent the exclusive jurisdiction for all litigation relating to this Agreement.

11. MEMBERSHIP FEES

Hotel Business Review Subscriptions

If you choose to purchase a subscription, member subscription payments can be made in U.S. Dollars, as well as a variety of international currencies. Membership terms are Annual Recurring, and Monthly Recurring. The Annual Recurring subscription is an annual commitment and subscribers will be charged each consecutive billing cycle. Annual Recurring subscriptions can be cancelled after the first billing cycle and within 30-days of the billing date for a full refund. Monthly Recurring subscriptions are ongoing and subscribers will be charged each consecutive monthly billing cycle. Monthly Recurring subscriptions can be cancelled after the first month and within 7 days of the monthly billing cycle for a full refund.

12. PAYMENT AUTHORIZATION

Payment for the services provided to you in, at, through or in association with HotelExecutive may be made by automatic credit card, debit card, direct debit, bankwire or Paypal and other approved payment means offered in, at, through or in association with HotelExecutive, and you hereby authorize HotelExecutive and its agents to transact such payments on your behalf.

You hereby authorize HotelExecutive's Internet Payment Service Provider to charge your credit card to pay for your membership to HotelExecutive. You further authorize HotelExecutive's Internet Payment Service Provider to charge your credit card for any and all purchases of products, services in association with HotelExecutive. You agree to be personally liable for all charges incurred by you in association with your access or other use of any content provided by HotelExecutive or any third party in association with HotelExecutive. You acknowledge and agree that your liability for all such charges shall continue after termination of your access or any type of membership arrangement with HotelExecutive.

In the event that you have chosen to have your membership automatically rebilled, unless and until you notify HotelExecutive that you wish to cancel or terminate your membership to HotelExecutive, you hereby agree and authorize HotelExecutive's Internet Payment Service Provider to automatically renew your membership to HotelExecutive on a continuing basis and to charge your credit card (or other payment means you have selected) to pay for the ongoing cost of your membership. You hereby further authorize HotelExecutive's Internet Payment Service Provider to charge your credit card (or other approved payment means you have selected) for any and all purchases of products, services and entertainment provided to in, at, through or in association with HotelExecutive.

13. PRIVACY POLICY

The following is the Privacy Policy for HotelExecutive

We can be reached via telephone, email, or online at our contact page. When you visit our site we do not log any information regarding your domain or email address. Information Sharing: We do not share user information with any third parties other than via press release distribution as described below.

Hotel Newswire is a newswire service that distributes press releases on behalf of our users. If you decide to submit a press release for distribution through our system we will transmit your entire press release including any personal information therein contained to our media contacts and online distribution points including search engines. This is the only redistribution of your information that we engage in. Your submission of press releases through our system indicates consent with this policy. The information we collect during your registration process is used to notify users about updates to our service and inform users of any special events hosted by Hotel Newswire. This information is not shared with other organizations for commercial or non-commercial purposes.

Cookies: Our system requires the use of cookies to enable the user to log back into our website to access information from the newswire, without having to log in each time using the required username and password.

If you do not want to receive email from us in the future, please let us know by following instructions included in our communication with you. Users who supply us with telephone numbers online may receive telephone contact from us regarding their account, or informing them of new products and services available on the HotelExecutive website. If you do not wish to receive such telephone calls, please edit your account and remove your phone number from your account profile. This can be done from your user account menu.

Ad Servers: We do not partner with or have any relationship with any ad server companies. From time to time, we may use customer information for new uses not previously disclosed in our privacy notice. If our information practices change at any time, we will post the policy changes to our website to notify you of these changes and provide you with the ability to opt out of these new uses. If you are concerned about how your information is used, you should check back at our website periodically.

Upon request we provide site visitors with access to all information (including proprietary information) that we maintain about them. Users can access this information by logging in to their account.

Security: We always use industry-standard encryption technologies while transferring and receiving user data exchanged with our site. We have appropriate security measures in place in our physical facilities to protect against the loss, misuse, or alteration of information that we have collected from you on our site. We do not store credit card information in our systems.

If you feel that this site is not following its stated information policy, you may contact us.

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Coming up in August 2019...

Food & Beverage: Millennial Chefs Lead the Way

Led by Millennial chefs, hotels continue to foster sustainability, sourcing and wellness within their dining rooms and banquet spaces, and by all measures, this is responsible for an increase in their revenues. In many hotels, the food & beverage division contributes 50 per cent or more to hotel sales and they are currently experiencing double-digit growth. As a result, hotel owners are allocating an increasing amount of square footage for F&B operations. The biggest area of investment is in catering, which is thriving due to weddings, social events and business conferences. Hotels are also investing in on-site market or convenience stores that offer fresh/refrigerated foods, and buffet concepts also continue to expand. Other popular food trends include a rise of fermented offerings such as kombucha, kimchi, sauerkraut, tempeh, kefir and pickles - all to produce the least processed food possible, and to boost probiotics to improve the immune system. Tea is also enjoying something of a renaissance. More people are thinking of tea with the same reverence as coffee due to its many varieties, applications and benefits. Craft tea blending, nitro tea on tap and even tea cocktails are beginning to appear on some hotel menus. Another trend concerns creating a unique, individualized and memorable experience for guests. This could be a small consumable item that is specific to a property or event, such as house-made snack mixes, gourmet popcorn, macaroons, or jars of house-made jams, chutneys, and mustards -all produced and customized in house. One staple that is in decline is the in-room minibar which seems to have fallen out of favor. The August issue of the Hotel Business Review will document the trends and challenges in the food and beverage sector, and report on what some leading hotels are doing to enhance this area of their business.