GMO Risks and How to Avoid Them

By Rani Bhattacharyya Community Economics Extension Educator , University of Minnesota Extension- Center for Community Vitality | August 26, 2012

With genetically modified foods entering consumer markets again this summer, the hospitality and food service industries need to decide how much liability they are willing accept concerning the risks that Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) pose to the public. To explore this issue, this article is divided into three sections: 1) what GMOs are and how they are regulated, 2) a listing of health risks that GMOs pose to your guests, and 3) strategies that hotels can use to avoid liability for these risks.

Definitions and Regulation

Silence concerning GMOs in the US is due, in part to a failure of federal regulators to establish a definition for GMOs that aligns with those used by the rest of the world. According to the USDA, FDA and EPA a Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) refers to organisms that have been altered by traditional breeding techniques or by molecular Genetic Engineering Methods (GEM). The EU and other countries however use the term GMO to refer specifically to products created from molecular genetic engineering (or bioengineering) methods developed since the 1970s. In this article, will use the international concept of GMOs. Anger over GMOs has also arisen since there is very little if any independent scientific information concerning the long-term effects on both humans and the environment resulting from production and consumption of newly engineered products. In the absence of providing farmers, biotech companies and the public a common language with which to develop a regulatory framework to "protect and promote our health", the FDA and other agencies are essentially refusing the American public the right to know what they are eating.

For a GMO crop to enter into production and the US marketplace, each of these agencies does have procedures for evaluating the risks posed by each product. In practice however, many of the trial GMO studies required by the USDA have failed to "contain" modified genetic material within trial plots, resulting in contamination of adjacent fields owned by farmers not participating in the studies. The farmers, in turn, are then being sued by biotech firms for infringing on intellectual property rights of the firms. The EPA also now lists proprietary GMO corn, cotton and potato varieties as (toxins) since they now contain chemicals used as herbicides and insecticides.

The FDA encourages voluntary consultations with companies developing GMOs, but law does not require formal product reports before they are cleared for industrial applications or sale.

Within this patchwork, three phases of genetic engineering have already been initiated since the 1990s. The first phase included crops now on the market and focused on increasing crop resistance to insecticides, herbicides and fungal/viral infections. The second phase is focused on ramping up plant resistance to extreme temperature and soil conditions and improving nutrient content. The third phase is working to develop crops that contain pharmaceutical additives like hormones and vaccines. While these scientific efforts have the potential to alleviate many of the worlds health issues and food shortages, the proprietary nature of the research and patenting being done by biotech companies leads many to believe their true aim is to monopolize both the world's agricultural resources and food supply.

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Coming up in November 2018...

Architecture & Design: Expecting the Unexpected

There are more than 700,000 hotels and resorts worldwide and the hotel industry is continually looking for new ways to differentiate its properties. In some cases, hotels themselves have become travel destinations and guests have come to expect the unexpected - to experience the touches that make the property unlike any other place in the world. To achieve this, architects and designers are adopting a variety of strategies to meet the needs of every type of guest and to provide incomparable customer experiences. One such strategy is site-integration - the effort to skillfully marry a hotel to its immediate surroundings. The goal is to honor the cultural location of the property, and to integrate that into the hotel's design - both inside and out. Constructing low-impact structures that blend in with the environment and incorporating local natural elements into the design are essential to this endeavor. Similarly, there is an ongoing effort to blur the lines between interior and exterior spaces - to pull the outside in - to enable guests to connect with nature and enjoy beautiful, harmonious surroundings at all times. Another design trend is personalization - taking the opportunity to make every space within the hotel original and unique. The days of matching decor and furniture in every room are gone; instead, designers are utilizing unexpected textures, mix-and-match furniture, diverse wall treatments and tiles - all to create a more personalized and fresh experience for the guest. Finally, lobbies are continuing to evolve. They are being transformed from cold, impersonal, business-like spaces into warm, inviting, living room-like spaces, meant to provide comfort and to encourage social interaction. These are a few of the current trends in the fields of hotel architecture and design that will be examined in the November issue of the Hotel Business Review.