How to Increase Employee Stress Resilience in 11 hours or Less

By Werner Absenger Chef de Cuisine, Cygnus 27 at Amway Grand Plaza | January 12, 2014

Daily Work Stressors: The Main Culprits

Research on stress in the hospitality industry remains an utterly understudied topic. The type and magnitude of hospitality employees’ stressors is not completely understood, and the subject presents much potential to affect positively many lives. How many lives? By 2016, the hospitality industry expects to employ 3.(1) million chefs, cooks, and food preparation workers alone.(2)

In 2010, O’Neill and Davis did a spectacular study on work stressors and well-being in the hotel industry.(1) The researchers took advantage of a daily diary design to “capture life as it is lived” (p. 387). This design is particularly innovative as it reduces recall bias, providing comprehensive information regarding the source, severity, and frequency of stressors on a daily basis, rather than averaging-out responses over time. For eight consecutive days, via phone interviews, the team inventoried stressors using DISE (Daily Inventory of Stressful Events).(3) Data was collected from 65 full-service hotels, with most major hotel companies, including Marriott, Hilton, Hyatt, InterContinental, Starwood, Kimpton, Fairmont, and Wyndham represented. The work stress findings I am going to elaborate on below was collected from 98 managers and 66 hourly employees who completed all eight days of interviews.

As a group, hospitality employees are relatively stressed out. Surprising, however, is the extent of how much more hospitality employees are stressed when compared to a U.S. national average of subjects who report stressors on only 25-44% of days. Hotel and restaurant employees log stressors on 40-62% of days.

Higher stress predicted more negative physical health symptoms in both hourly employees as well as managers. However, this became acutely obvious for managers, who experience more work stress due to higher levels of responsibility. Managers worked an average of 57 hours per week in this study versus an average of 36 hours for hourly employees. O’Neill and Davis write that employee stress, especially managerial stress, should be a significant concern for owners and operators. “If hotel managers are going to work such hours in the long term, then hotel executives should consider ways to reduce those employees’ stress, if not work hours. The result of not doing so could be additional organizational costs…” (p. 389).

A couple unexpected findings of the study, at least to yours truly, were the report that O’Neill and Davis did not find a significant difference based on gender or marital status, differing from previous studies which have shown that women have greater work stress than men. I found this surprising because female employees tend to have a ruminative copying style that has the potential to amplify and increase depression. Male employees on the other hand tend to respond to stressors through behavior and distraction, a copying style that has the potential to decrease depression.(4)

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Eco-Friendly Practices: The Greening of Your Bottom Line

There are strong moral and ethical reasons why a hotel should incorporate eco-friendly practices into their business but it is also becoming abundantly clear that “going green” can dramatically improve a hotel's bottom line. When energy-saving measures are introduced - fluorescent bulbs, ceiling fans, linen cards, lights out cards, motion sensors for all public spaces, and energy management systems - energy bills are substantially reduced. When water-saving equipment is introduced - low-flow showerheads, low-flow toilets, waterless urinals, and serving water only on request in restaurants - water bills are also considerably reduced. Waste hauling is another major expense which can be lowered through recycling efforts and by avoiding wastefully-packaged products. Vendors can be asked to deliver products in minimal wrapping, and to deliver products one day, and pick up the packaging materials the next day - generating substantial savings. In addition, renewable sources of energy (solar, geothermal, wind, etc.) have substantially improved the economics of using alternative energies at the property level. There are other compelling reasons to initiate sustainability practices in their operation. Being green means guests and staff are healthier, which can lead to an increase in staff retention, as well as increased business from health conscious guests. Also, sooner or later, all properties will be sold, and green hotels will command a higher price due to its energy efficiencies. Finally, some hotels qualify for tax credits, subsidies and rebates from local, regional and federal governments for the eco-friendly investments they've made in their hotels. The May issue of the Hotel Business Review will document how some hotels are integrating sustainable practices into their operations and how their hotels are benefiting from them.