Hotel Group Meetings: Demand vs. Supply


Leverage the Power of an Integrated Revenue Strategysm to Recover Faster

By Trevor Stuart-Hill President & Founder, Revenue Matters | October 11, 2020

This article was co-authored by William Perry Jr., Director of Revenue Strategies, Revenue Matters

Over time, the disciplines of Revenue Management, Marketing, and Distribution have evolved with the enhancement of technology, changes in philosophical outlooks, and different business strategies. 

Furthermore, complicated intra-company dynamics and need for specialization have created an environment where revenue management and distribution often operate in one silo, while sales and marketing operate in another, thus creating hurdles that slow a hotel's responsiveness to rapidly changing market conditions.

While communications have improved with regular revenue strategy meetings, the various disciplines that make up a hotel sales effort are still fragmented and often report to different leaders on local, regional and corporate levels, often having different objectives.  Hotel operators and owners can improve efficiencies and revenue performance through a practice we call Integrated Revenue Strategysm. This aligns the core disciplines of Revenue Management, Marketing, and Distribution to optimize performance, streamline market responses, and deliver highly competitive results even during periods of intense market volatility.

Revenue Management

Remember the days of the "Fade Rates?"  During the eighties and into the early nineties, full-service hotels usually had a large blackboard in their reservations office with a calendar grid showing the lowest rate a reservation agent could sell for a specific date.  When a prospect called to book a room, the reservation agent would quote the "Rack" or published rate for a specific date unless the potential guest balked at the price. If the customer objected to a rate, the agent would start decreasing or "fading" to a lower rate until they reached the authorized fade rate or floor price. 

This back and forth negotiation usually yielded a booking, and it was a common practice in selling transient rooms, before the Internet.  In those days, the reservation department usually reported to the front office manager and the function of selling guest rooms was in the realm of hotel operations.  In many ways, it was a simpler time because online travel agencies (OTAs) and complex distribution systems had not entered the scene, guests could not comparison shop with the touch of a few key strokes, and selling reservations was more of a customer service duty than a strategic sales effort, aided by the art of persuasion.

In the early 1990s, hotels started transforming Reservation Managers into Revenue Managers and the responsibility of selling rooms slowly shifted from operations to the sales department. Reporting relationships also changed as Revenue Managers reported directly to the Director of Sales.  Early practitioners of revenue management forecasted demand, set Best Available Rate (BAR) prices, and manipulated minimum length of stay restrictions to mold incoming demand into profitable stay patterns for the hotel.  More importantly, the practice of rate fading began to vanish, along with the rate board, and hotels entered the era of Rational Pricing.

As the discipline started to evolve further, many corporate offices soon realized that the Director of Sales, who was bonused based on volume business (such as group and negotiated contracts), often found themself in conflict with the data driven revenue managers who would favor business based solely on Revenue Per Available Room (RevPAR) contribution rather than other factors.  The true reality would lie somewhere in between, but the perception of conflicts created changes in reporting structures, as many revenue managers were further elevated to directors and started reporting directly to the hotel General Manager. 

The newly minted Revenue Managers were often given the authority to veto group or negotiated business based purely on the data.  At some properties, the Director of Revenue Management became a member of the hotel's executive committee.

In time, the position of revenue management evolved from a job of simply pushing buttons, distributing reports, producing forecasts, and making retail price recommendations to a strategic role which required an understanding of total hotel profitability, communicating advanced data analytics, facilitating and leading strategic sales planning meetings, collaborating with owners and asset managers, and maintaining a deep knowledge of distribution channels and continuously changing technology, all while optimizing revenue potential.  Today, more than ever, the role of the Revenue Strategist is one of art and science, and relies on facts and communication to drive performance.

A dynamic selling cycle begins with Demand Planning, a concept borrowed from supply-chain management, but easily adaptable to hotels.  Demand Planning is a process that enables the hotel to develop a day-by-day forecast for determining market demand from various sources.  For example, intuitively, we can assume that most suburban hotels will run less than 30% occupancy on the third Sunday of December (some might call these never fill dates). 

Conversely, it is also commonly assumed that most U.S. beach and resort destinations will sell out on the Friday of Independence Day Weekend.  Therefore, if we know about demand on these two days, with a little effort using city-wide event calendars, historical business records (occupancy and revenue), special event dates, competitive pricing shops and other publicly available information, we could make good assumptions about demand on the other 363 days of the year, even without sophisticated systems or complex algorithms.

Therefore, the Revenue Strategist is charged with communicating and coordinating the formation of long-term forecasts for identifying ebbs and flows in a hotel's top-line demand projections. The forecast serves as a critical tool in the foundation of developing a marketing and distribution strategy that stimulates new demand while enriching existing demand. 

It is easy to see how the role of Revenue Management now needs to expand to factor in the disciplines of Marketing and Distribution.  Marketing helps us sell the right product by creating consumer desire, Distribution aids us in selling it to the right customer through the right channel, and Revenue Management supports us in selling it at the right price and the right time based on forecasted market demand.


In basic terms, marketing is generally defined as the business of promoting or selling products and services. A couple of decades ago that basically meant advertising for hotels, or public relations for luxury properties.  Messaging was controlled by the sales and marketing team and it was in a form of one-way communication from the hotel to the prospective consumer. 

Ad agencies helped hotels produce glossy brochures with beautiful images of models drinking umbrella cocktails by the pool, and carefully staged guest rooms showcasing a property's least worn rooms with the best views.  In those days, it was easy to follow a prescribed tick-the-box checklist of how to market a hotel, and most major chains had workbooks on what to do to successfully promote a property-this was Marketing 101.

Today, of course, the world has changed and thanks to social media and influencers, a hotel can be a smashing success or a dismal failure by a single well-executed visit or a poorly managed stay of a content creator who has thousands, if not millions, of followers.  Gone are those marketing workbooks and spreadsheets, that gave even the novice marketeer a general direction of what to do to promote their hotel.

There are at least 100 social media websites, and what is hot today may be gone tomorrow.  Remember, Tom? He used to welcome you to MySpace when you signed up.  MySpace, by the way, is still an active site.  In addition to free social media feeds, Directors of Sales and General Managers are frequently bombarded with conference calls and offers to participate in promotions on OTA websites and via social media advertising. Of course, what works for one hotel may not work for another based on a market's demographics and the chosen platforms.

A revenue strategy team needs to fully understand its customer base and know where they engage online.  For example, different social media platforms are popular with different age groups.  LinkedIn is professionally focused and most popular with U.S. adults between the age of 25-49, whereas Facebook is more evenly spread with 75% of Americans between the age of 18-49.  It is estimated that TikTok's following is between the ages of 18-24 years old.  Therefore, as an example, a hotel focused on business travelers may want to concentrate their efforts on LinkedIn, whereas a hotel catering to the "Creative Class" (designers, architects, artists etc.) may emphasis Instagram. 

A property should not rule out TikTok, which might focus on creative content for teens-think of destination resorts and how the younger members of the family might be influential in persuading their parents, or grandparents, when choosing a leisure destination.  While these are just examples, they illustrate the point that one platform does not completely cover all demographics, and a hotel's approach to marketing (and promotion) should not be uniform on all media.

Hotels don't need big budgets either, but they do need consistency and lots of creativity.  Consider the Clubhouse Inn and Suites in Topeka, Kansas.  This is an independent suburban hotel that recently posted a story about a local woman that stays at the hotel to enjoy the pool.  Nothing unusual about that, except the woman is into cosplay and likes to wear mermaid fins to swim, which often piques the curiosity of in-house guests and makes for interesting posts on Facebook and Instagram.

The Tourist Hotel (@touristwelcome), located in North Adams, Massachusetts, has a witty-retro Instagram profile that is creative and designed for the guest to imagine themselves in the picture.  The Tourist's profile also has personality and makes you want to spend a weekend hanging out with the hotel staff, because it feels creative, fun, and relaxing. What is more important is that the images stimulate engagement from guests who often post comments and share their experiences at the property.  The goal of all social media is to create engagement-that is how you know you're winning. 

For TikTok followers, a Dallas creator showcased the hotel's recent pop-up State Fair. Due to COVID-19, the Texas State Fair was cancelled, so the hotel created a pop-event open to the public for $10 per ticket and sold carnival food with some entertainment.  The music soundtrack and video quality on the TikTok posts easily inspired viewers to check out the scene. 

While these sites can be entertaining, it is important to remember the primary business goal is to build and enhance demand.  Creative marketing can drive self-generated demand for a hotel and deliver business on off peak days by filling voids in hotel occupancy.  However, great marketing can also enhance revenue by giving a hotel the ability to drive higher rate during periods of high demand.  In other words, marketing's value-add is helping a guest justify paying 10-15% more in rate because of an emotional connection. The effort is worth it since incremental increases in rate go directly to the bottom line.  Effective marketers plan and reforecast demand at least one year out and on a regular basis, and they know when to focus on occupancy and when to focus on rate.

It is important not to forget nor neglect crowd-sourced review sites like Yelp or TripAdvisor. It is critical to monitor these sites daily and respond quickly to guest feedback, both positive and negative.   Consumers do read reviews and they try to understand guest experiences, but more importantly how a hotel responds to poor service issues.  Plus, some competitors will stalk these social sites and use your weaknesses against you in their sales efforts to solicit groups and volume accounts or a favorable rate.

Another important tool in marketing is Customer Relationship Management (CRM), which helps a property understand its core customers.  Some property management systems (PMS) do a great job at collecting CRM data like mailing addresses, email addresses, birth and anniversary dates, stay history, and more importantly, general customer preferences.  Asking the right questions and having the ability to mine the data can provide revenue teams with valuable insights into who the hotel's top performing customers are and provide clues on how to connect with them on a deeper level. 

Utilizing this personalized marketing data to target guest communications and communicate on a one-to-one basis strengthens loyalty and ultimately results in greater direct bookings. For example, targeting an offer to past guests and prospects in a specific geographic drive or fly market will let the guest know that you know who they are as an individual by providing relevant information rather than flooding a consumer's email inbox with mass-produced communication.

Earlier we discussed the importance Revenue Management plays in understanding and outlining market demand, answering questions about when to drive occupancy and when to drive rate.  As illustrated, great marketing campaigns can help a hotel fill voids in occupancy by creating demand during off peak periods and driving even higher rates during periods of high demand by making emotional connections with guests.  The third element is Distribution, which is how we get the product to the customer, or in the case of a lodging operation, how a guest finds and books our property.


Not so long ago, hotel distribution was comprised of three simple channels: direct calls to the hotel, calls to a central call center, and a teletype machine that received Global Distribution System (GDS) bookings from travel agencies.   Today, distribution channels are so complex and intra-connected that the task of channel management is quickly evolving into its own specialized discipline.  Those original channels still exist in one form or another, but it is now estimated that there are over 400 online travel agency (OTA) sites that sell reservations in multiple languages and different currencies.

Revenue teams sometimes struggle to understand what rates and availability are being pulled directly from a hotel's Central Reservations System (CRS) versus those pulled from onward distribution channels. Onward distribution is when one website pulls rates and availability from another website. For example, Priceline sometimes procures rates and inventory from its sister website,, and promotes the hotel on its own website. Other distributors may rely on Bed Banks such as HotelBeds or even a traditional wholesaler to populate "their" online inventory.  A hotel may never contract or even contact onward distribution sites, but their rates and availability are being sold on that website.  It is important to remember this issue when deciding to turn a particular channel on or off.

Aside from the sheer volume of OTAs, there are additional layers of complexity regarding net and gross rates, varying commission rates, hotel payment collect versus OTA payment collect, and the ongoing chore of consistently maintaining rate parity among all channels.  Commission rates can even vary on the same channels, depending on the product being sold.  In addition to keeping rates and inventory updated across all channels, either directly or through channel management software, revenue teams need to also ensure content information (such as images and other static data) is correct and updated as changes occur.

The large OTAs now offer the ability to create different pricing strategies and promotions based on the consumer booking platform, such as mobile versus desktop or a guest's geographical location.  This means a guest making a reservation on their mobile app could find a different rate than a guest booking via computer.  Additionally, different pricing strategies can also be developed based on the location where the guest is booking their reservation. 

The combinations of pricing strategies are endless and are no longer as simple as setting length of stay restrictions on different BAR prices.  Well-administered revenue management systems may do a good job at helping set baseline pricing based on market demand, but human engagement is needed in determining additional discounts for OTA promotions like frequent user programs ( Genius or Expedia Members), platform promotions (mobile versus desktop), or other layered discounts.  All these factors need to be considered when setting prices on multiple dimensions.

Revenue management teams need to review production reports on a regular basis and understand where reservations are coming from.  Teams should have a basic understanding of why some sites produce better than others-is it due to the audience, promotional discounts, or possibly how a hotel is ranked on a specific site.    These are just some of the questions that teams need to consider when reviewing their overall revenue strategy.

Integrated Revenue Strategysm

We have now examined the three key pillars of an Integrated Revenue Strategysm, and, as illustrated, performing only one of these three very well can have a strong effect on a hotel's top line.  However, all three disciplines are equally important. If we do not understand demand, how can we price the hotel? If we do not market our product, who will know what we have to offer? If we are not correctly positioned in distribution channels, how will guests find and book us?

The secret is to have clearly defined goals for everyone that contribute to the desired outcome, such as increasing occupancy, driving rate, attracting a certain market segment or shifting channel mix, for example.  The more specific the better.  Many operators make the mistake of providing general guidance such as "increase revenue."  While increased revenue may be the ultimate objective, it is simply a by-product of certain actions.  In the absence of a well-executed integrated revenue strategy, talented individuals will do what they do best, and will create inefficiencies in the process. 

The concept of an integrated revenue strategy takes the best from each discipline and combines them into one powerful force. By closely aligning the efforts of specialists and practitioners in each area toward common goals, it has been proven that properties can generate superior results, even during challenging times. 

Mr. Perry Jr. This article was co-authored by William Perry Jr.. Prior to joining the Revenue Matters team in July 2019, Mr. Perry spent more than two decades both domestically and internationally with major hotel brands including: Ritz-Carlton, Marriott, Hilton, The St. Regis, Hampton, Conrad, and numerous independent properties. His experience consists of hotel operations, sales, hotel development, asset management and most importantly revenue management and strategy. Mr. Perry enjoys being able to use his talents and experience to help his clients drive strong top-line revenue results.  

Mr. Stuart-Hill Trevor Stuart-Hill is the founder and currently serves as president of Revenue Matters. He sets the cultural course, provides the strategic direction and oversees the performance for each of Revenue Matters' operating groups. He believes that superior asset value is directly supported through top-line performance. A proponent of sharing knowledge with others, Mr. Stuart-Hill is often tapped by global hotel associations and executive groups to share his expertise in hospitality revenue management. He co-authored the first college-level textbook on the subject of revenue management for hotels and resorts. It is currently being used for teaching this discipline at colleges and universities around the world. He was a founding member of the Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International's (HSMAI) Revenue Management Advisory Board and is an active member of the International Society of Hospitality Consultants (ISHC). Mr. Stuart-Hill has been recognized by HSMAI as one of the hospitality industry's top 25 minds in sales and marketing. Mr. Stuart-Hill can be contacted at 303-690-9116 or Please visit for more information. Extended Biography

HotelExecutive retains the copyright to the articles published in the Hotel Business Review. Articles cannot be republished without prior written consent by HotelExecutive.

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We expect all users of our Site to take responsibility for their own actions and cannot and do not assume liability for any acts of third parties which take place at our Site. By utilizing the Good Samaritan procedures set forth herein, you waive any and all claims or remedies which you might otherwise be able to assert against hotelexecutive under any theory of law (including, but not limited to, intellectual property laws) that arise out of or relate in any way to the content at hotelexecutive or our response, or failure to respond, to a complaint.

E. Investigation/Liability Limitation

You agree that we have the right, but not the obligation, to investigate any complaint received. By reserving this right, we do not undertake any responsibility in fact to investigate complaints or to remove, edit, disable or restrict access to or the availability of Content. We will not act on complaints that we believe, in our sole discretion, to be deficient, incomplete, or otherwise questionable. If you believe that Content remains on HotelExecutive which violates your rights, Your sole and exclusive remedy shall be against the user or other party responsible for said content, not against HotelExecutive. your sole and exclusive remedy against HotelExecutive shall be to terminate your use of HotelExecutive and service.

Digital Millennium Copyright Act Compliance. As set forth in Subsection (b), you must contact our agent if you believe that a work protected by a U.S. Copyright which you own has been posted on our Site without authorization or that our Site, in some material way, contributes to its infringement. It is our policy in appropriate circumstances, if possible, to terminate the access rights of repeat infringers and other users who use HotelExecutive in an inappropriate or objectionable manner.


HotelExecutive reserves the right to fully cooperate with any law enforcement authorities or court order requesting or directing HotelExecutive to disclose the identity or other information regarding any user or member alleged by any governmental entity to be using HotelExecutive or any Content or materials available in, at, through or in association with HotelExecutive in violation of any law or regulation, or in violation of this Agreement, including, without limitation, the posting of e-mail messages, or publishing or otherwise making available any such materials. By accepting this agreement you waive and hold harmless HotelExecutive from any claims resulting from any action by HotelExecutive during, or as a result of, its investigations, and from any actions taken as a consequence of investigations by either HotelExecutive or law enforcement authorities


If any provision(s) of this Agreement is held by a court of competent jurisdiction to be contrary to law, then such provision(s) shall be construed, as nearly as possible, to reflect the intentions of the parties with the other provisions remaining in full force and effect. HotelExecutive's failure to exercise or enforce any right or provision of this Agreement shall not constitute a waiver of such right or provision unless acknowledged and agreed to by HotelExecutive in writing. The section titles in this Agreement are solely used for the convenience of the parties and have no legal or contractual significance. This Agreement may be assigned in whole or in part by HotelExecutive. This Agreement may not be assigned in any manner by you without the express, prior written permission of HotelExecutive.

Any and all disputes or controversies of any kind, including but not limited to any performance, duty, obligation or liability arising under or related to this Agreement which are not first resolved informally, shall be determined by binding arbitration in San Francisco, California, in accordance with the rules of the American Arbitration Association. The final award in any such arbitration proceeding shall be subject to entry as a judgment by any court or competent jurisdiction, provided that such judgment does not conflict with the terms and provisions hereof. The jurisdiction of the arbiter (or arbiters) with respect to legal matters shall be limited only by the statutory and common law of the State of California and the United States.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, any and all disputes, which the parties cannot informally resolve, regarding the scope of issues or matter with the jurisdiction of the arbitrator, shall be resolved by a separate dispute resolution process whereby HotelExecutive, in its sole discretion shall elect the dispute to be resolved by either (1) a court of competent jurisdiction in the State of California or (2) a panel of three new arbitrators.

This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of California notwithstanding any conflict of laws provisions. You and HotelExecutive agree that the venue for all legal disputes, controversies, actions of any kind arising under or related to this Agreement shall be San Francisco, California. You and HotelExecutive further agree that in case of any litigation regarding this Agreement, you irrevocably and unconditionally (i) consent to submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts in the County of San Francisco, California for any litigation or dispute arising out of or relating to this Agreement, (ii) agree not to commence any litigation arising out of or relating to this Agreement except in the California Courts, (iii) agree not to plead or claim that such litigation brought therein has been brought in an inconvenient forum, and (iv) agree the California Courts represent the exclusive jurisdiction for all litigation relating to this Agreement.


Hotel Business Review Subscriptions

If you choose to purchase a subscription, member subscription payments can be made in U.S. Dollars, as well as a variety of international currencies. Membership terms are Annual Recurring, and Monthly Recurring. The Annual Recurring subscription is an annual commitment and subscribers will be charged each consecutive billing cycle. Annual Recurring subscriptions can be cancelled after the first billing cycle and within 30-days of the billing date for a full refund. Monthly Recurring subscriptions are ongoing and subscribers will be charged each consecutive monthly billing cycle. Monthly Recurring subscriptions can be cancelled after the first month and within 7 days of the monthly billing cycle for a full refund.


Payment for the services provided to you in, at, through or in association with HotelExecutive may be made by automatic credit card, debit card, direct debit, bankwire or Paypal and other approved payment means offered in, at, through or in association with HotelExecutive, and you hereby authorize HotelExecutive and its agents to transact such payments on your behalf.

You hereby authorize HotelExecutive's Internet Payment Service Provider to charge your credit card to pay for your membership to HotelExecutive. You further authorize HotelExecutive's Internet Payment Service Provider to charge your credit card for any and all purchases of products, services in association with HotelExecutive. You agree to be personally liable for all charges incurred by you in association with your access or other use of any content provided by HotelExecutive or any third party in association with HotelExecutive. You acknowledge and agree that your liability for all such charges shall continue after termination of your access or any type of membership arrangement with HotelExecutive.

In the event that you have chosen to have your membership automatically rebilled, unless and until you notify HotelExecutive that you wish to cancel or terminate your membership to HotelExecutive, you hereby agree and authorize HotelExecutive's Internet Payment Service Provider to automatically renew your membership to HotelExecutive on a continuing basis and to charge your credit card (or other payment means you have selected) to pay for the ongoing cost of your membership. You hereby further authorize HotelExecutive's Internet Payment Service Provider to charge your credit card (or other approved payment means you have selected) for any and all purchases of products, services and entertainment provided to in, at, through or in association with HotelExecutive.


The following is the Privacy Policy for HotelExecutive

We can be reached via telephone, email, or online at our contact page. When you visit our site we do not log any information regarding your domain or email address. Information Sharing: We do not share user information with any third parties other than via press release distribution as described below.

Hotel Newswire is a newswire service that distributes press releases on behalf of our users. If you decide to submit a press release for distribution through our system we will transmit your entire press release including any personal information therein contained to our media contacts and online distribution points including search engines. This is the only redistribution of your information that we engage in. Your submission of press releases through our system indicates consent with this policy. The information we collect during your registration process is used to notify users about updates to our service and inform users of any special events hosted by Hotel Newswire. This information is not shared with other organizations for commercial or non-commercial purposes.

Cookies: Our system requires the use of cookies to enable the user to log back into our website to access information from the newswire, without having to log in each time using the required username and password.

If you do not want to receive email from us in the future, please let us know by following instructions included in our communication with you. Users who supply us with telephone numbers online may receive telephone contact from us regarding their account, or informing them of new products and services available on the HotelExecutive website. If you do not wish to receive such telephone calls, please edit your account and remove your phone number from your account profile. This can be done from your user account menu.

Ad Servers: We do not partner with or have any relationship with any ad server companies. From time to time, we may use customer information for new uses not previously disclosed in our privacy notice. If our information practices change at any time, we will post the policy changes to our website to notify you of these changes and provide you with the ability to opt out of these new uses. If you are concerned about how your information is used, you should check back at our website periodically.

Upon request we provide site visitors with access to all information (including proprietary information) that we maintain about them. Users can access this information by logging in to their account.

Security: We always use industry-standard encryption technologies while transferring and receiving user data exchanged with our site. We have appropriate security measures in place in our physical facilities to protect against the loss, misuse, or alteration of information that we have collected from you on our site. We do not store credit card information in our systems.

If you feel that this site is not following its stated information policy, you may contact us.

Jamie Sigler O'Grady
Cate Farmer
Ajay Aluri
Claire Way
Jeremy McCarthy
Marissa Criaris
Gary Hogan
Coming up in November 2020...

Hotel Design: Home Away From Home

With the rise of the sharing economy and the peer-to-peer marketplace for lodging options, hoteliers are re-thinking the look, feel and appeal of their locations. There is an emphasis on re-creating a feeling of homeyness - a comfortable, cozy and inviting space that feels like home. 'This is accomplished through the careful selection of furniture design, paint colors, lighting design, artwork, bathroom fixtures and textile accessories. In addition, some hotels are providing their guests with upscale amenities, such as a book and movie library, home-style kitchenettes, a coffee machine with locally-sourced beans and tea, or even a batch of fresh-baked cookies. Similarly, there is a growing design trend based on the concept of place-making. Travelers are searching for experiences that are unique and authentic to the locale in which they find themselves, and so hotel designers are integrating a sense of place into their work. This is partially achieved by incorporating traditional artisanal crafts and other local artwork into hotel rooms and communal spaces. Another design trend includes the creation of full-service, co-working environments within the hotel. Guests don't like to stay alone in their room when they need to work, so now they can go downstairs to the lobby-or up to the roof-to work among others. These areas encourage guests - and non-guests alike - to stay as long as they like and to partake of hotel amenities. Finally, recognizing the importance of the Wellness Movement, some designers are exploring how room design can increase the likelihood of deep and restorative sleep. Creating dark and quiet spaces, blocking excessive light, providing guests with a selection of different kinds of pillows, and the ability to control room temperature, are a few of the best practices in this area. These are some of the architecture and design topics that will be covered in the November issue of the Hotel Business Review.